The Ultimate Guide To Berberine And Exercise  

The Ultimate Guide To Berberine And Exercise 

Mai Delacruz

Mai Delacruz
Personal Fitness Trainer & Health Coach

Updated on 11/29/2022

Berberine is an alkaloid compound in several plants' roots, stems, rhizomes, and bark. Some of these plants include the Californian flower, the goldenseal, the cork tree, the Chinese goldthread, the Oregon grape, and several plants belonging to Berberis. Additionally, it is easily accessible in the form of a nutritional supplement. Berberine has a long history of usage in the traditional medical systems of India, China, and Persia, and these systems date back thousands of years. According to research, Berberine And Exercise may have benefits against some chronic health diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disorders, neurodegenerative illness, depression, and metabolic dysfunction. Some of the effects of Berberine are similar to those linked with metformin and an antihyperglycemic medication frequently used to treat type 2 diabetes.

Some evidence from preliminary animal studies suggests that Berberine may have anti-aging effects and help treat aging disorders.

On the other hand, most berberine studies have been carried out on animals, and there have only been a few tests on people. This article gives an overview of the data proving the excellent health benefits of Berberine and compares and contrasts the compound's effects and mechanisms of action to those of metformin. [This article] also compares and counters the effects of Berberine to those of metformin.

Anti-Diabetic And Blood Sugar Level Regulating Properties

Anti-Diabetic And Blood Sugar Level Regulating Properties

studies revealed that Berberine was typically as effective as standard antihyperglycemic medications when individuals engaged in lifestyle adjustments to reduce the effects of diabetes." [citation required]

The development of insulin resistance, diabetes, and the consequences associated with each condition are significantly impacted by oxidative stress and inflammation. Traditional Chinese medicine has found Berberine to be an effective therapy for diabetes for a long time. Likely because Berberine possesses both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. 

Research conducted on rodents shows that Berberine improves the function of pancreatic islet cells, lowers LDL cholesterol levels, and mitigates the adverse impact diabetes has on the kidneys.

However, the findings from trials conducted on humans on the efficiency of Berberine in combating diabetes have been contradictory.

The effects of Berberine, metformin, and rosiglitazone are compared throughout a randomized two-month clinical experiment involving 97 individuals with diabetes. The fasting blood glucose levels, hemoglobin (Hb)A1c (a marker of long-term blood glucose management), triglycerides, and insulin were all reduced in the study participants when they took 1 gram of Berberine each day. The results of Berberine regarding blood glucose levels (a decrease of 26 percent) and HbA1c (a reduction of 18 percent) ARE comparable to those obtained with metformin and rosiglitazone. 


A meta-analysis of 14 clinical studies involving over 1,000 patients with diabetes discovered that the trials were very different in terms of how they were designed and the doses used—the lengths of time they were conducted.

Berberine is used with other diabetes treatments, such as modifying the participants' lifestyles, taking antihyperglycemic medications (like metformin, glipizide, or rosiglitazone), or taking aspirin. All of these treatments were intended to reduce blood sugar levels. The daily dosage of Berberine varied from 0.5 to 1.5 grams, and patients received it in two or three equal portions. The duration of the trial varied anywhere from eight to twenty-four weeks. Studies found that Berberine is typically as effective as conventional antihyperglycemic medications when patients engage in lifestyle improvements to reduce diabetes. In general, the trials showed that Berberine was effective. When combined with antihyperglycemic medicines, Berberine was shown to have a synergistic effect that increased the effectiveness of the medications. The only adverse impact was a bit of pain in the gastrointestinal tract. The authors of the research admitted that the trials that were analyzed in the analysis were of poor quality, and they argued that in the future, there should be studies that are better constructed. 

The metabolic effects of berberines are supported even more strongly by a more recent meta-analysis of trials that included 2,500 people living with diabetes as participants. The Study's findings showed that the addition of berberine supplementation to lifestyle changes resulted in a more significant reduction in HbA1c, normalization of blood lipids (i.e., cholesterol and triglycerides), and a reduction in blood pressure than lifestyle changes alone and was superior to the placebo supplementation.

Gains In Body Mass And The Metabolic Syndrome

Gains In Body Mass And The Metabolic Syndrome

The risk of developing various health problems, including metabolic syndrome, increases when a person carries excess fat on their body. The findings of a randomized controlled trial demonstrate the efficacy of berberine supplementation in preventing weight gain and metabolic syndrome among patients taking antipsychotic medications. Antipsychotic medications are known to cause predictable weight gain, glucose dysfunction, and dyslipidemia, and all contribute to higher rates of cardiovascular disease in people with severe neuropsychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Each participant took a placebo or 600 or 900 mg of Berberine daily during the Study. At the end of the study period of 12 weeks, participants who took 600 milligrams of Berberine per day had improved cholesterol and glucose levels, dropping 2.4 pounds more than those in the placebo group. The participants who took the more significant amount (900 milligrams) had similar gains, and they observed these changes sooner, following just eight weeks of supplementation. 

Berberine's Effects Include Lowering Cholesterol Levels.


When it comes to improving lipid profiles, statins are almost always considered the medicine of choice, and this is especially true for those at risk for cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, anywhere between 10 and 20 percent of persons who take the medications end up developing consequences, such as myopathy (injury to the muscles) or damage to the liver. Statins work by inhibiting the synthesis of an enzyme in the liver known as hydroxy-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, also referred to as HMG-CoA reductase. It results in a reduction in the amount of cholesterol in the blood. The methods through which Berberine elicits these effects (such as modulation of proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism) differ from those by which statins accomplish the same goal: reducing blood cholesterol levels. Interestingly, using Berberine with statin medication is more beneficial than utilizing either ingredient individually.

Animal Evidence

Animal Evidence

Berberine has shown in many studies conducted on rabbits and rats that diets that promoted obesity lower levels of serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides while simultaneously raising levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. According to the evidence, Berberine may also modify variables implicated in the etiology of atherosclerosis.

Human Evidence

Human Evidence

Research conducted on humans reveals the same results. One hundred forty-four participants took part in clinical research that compared the effects of taking 500 milligrams of Berberine to those of taking a placebo twice daily for three months. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment. Compared to the group that received a placebo, the individual given Berberine saw significant weight loss. They reported changes in their total cholesterol levels, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. [9] Berberine, ezetimibe, or the combination of the two compounds was investigated in a study involving 228 people who had high cholesterol but were unable or unwilling to take statins. The study aimed to examine the effects of Berberine, ezetimibe (a drug that lowers cholesterol), or the combination of the two compounds on modulating cholesterol levels. Ezetimibe lowered LDL cholesterol by around 25 percent, while a nutraceutical product that contained Berberine, policosanols, and red yeast rice reduced it by almost 32 percent. In addition, Berberine was associated with a reduced incidence of adverse effects. 

A larger clinical trial that included more than 1,380 participants found that taking a proprietary supplement with Berberine for eight weeks increased HDL cholesterol and reduced non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, waist circumference, and blood pressure biomarkers to diagnose metabolic syndrome. The participants did not have diabetes. After the experiment, a considerable drop in the overall number of subjects who exhibited the symptoms of metabolic syndrome.


"Individuals taking Berberine saw weight loss and improved their total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, compared to the placebo group. "

Both hypertension and congestive heart failure are severe conditions.

Berberine has been shown to have pharmacological activity in various chronic conditions.

High blood pressure causes damage to the blood vessels and contributes to renal failure. In a mouse model of hypertension, the injection of Berberine delayed the onset of hypertension and decreased the severity of the condition. We accomplished It by lowering levels of both angiotensin II and aldosterone (hormones that elevate blood pressure). Additionally, the substance decreased proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, and IL-23. These cytokines are responsible for the damage that occurs to blood vessels and kidneys. Berberine decreased the systemic blood pressure of hypertensive mice and promoted aortic relaxation in isolated mouse aortas. It also caused the peace of cultured mouse vascular smooth muscle cells. These results were related to the inhibition of the transient receptor potential vanilloid four-channel, a protein that, among other functions, plays a part in the functioning of the vascular system. 


It is common to practice to reserve the term "congestive heart failure" until the last stage of heart disease—the potential role of Berberine in treating congestive heart failure in a rat model. High doses of the compound improved several markers of cardiac function, including left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, which measures the risk of subsequent heart failure and the amount of blood found in the heart's left ventricle.

Clinical studies are required to thoroughly understand the advantages of Berberine on the cardiovascular system in humans.

Beneficial Effects On Inflammation And Cancer Prevention In The Liver And Intestines


" In a clinical trial that was randomized, double-blind, and controlled with placebo, Berberine was shown to reduce the frequency of diarrhea, abdominal pain, and the urgent need to defecate. "

Berberine may have beneficial effects in multiple tissues in the gut, particularly the liver and the intestine; however, the majority of the data demonstrating these effects come from studies conducted on cell cultures, and they may or may not apply to humans.

Cell culture experiments demonstrate that the compound inhibits the proliferation and growth of hepatic stellate cells, which are the primary driver of liver fibrosis development. These cells are found in the liver.

A study conducted on rodents found that tissue changes like steatosis, necrosis, and myofibroblast proliferation, as several markers of liver dysfunction, decreased when the rats were given Berberine at doses of 50, 100, or 200 milligrams per kilogram of body weight (mg/kg/BW) per day. The rats in the control group did not receive any berberine. Other studies conducted in cell culture have shown that Berberine may offer protection against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, also known as NAFLD. NAFLD is a syndrome that encompasses multiple states of liver dysfunction, such as steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and cirrhosis. Berberine may offer protection against NAFLD. Numerous mechanisms are associated with this protective effect. They center on improved glucose and lipid metabolism, reversed methylation states of genes that participate in lipid metabolism, and enhanced antioxidant capacity of liver cells. These mechanisms have been identified.


Research in clinical settings is required to determine whether or not Berberine has any positive effects on the liver of humans. It would appear that Berberine has a beneficial impact on reducing factors that drive inflammatory conditions in the intestine. In studies conducted using cell cultures, Berberine was shown to reduce levels of proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis in the gut, both characteristic features of inflammatory bowel disease. In human patients, the compound alleviated the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, also known as IBS. Participants in an eight-week clinical trial involving 132 people with IBS who took either 400 milligrams of Berberine or a placebo twice daily for the duration of the Study reported a decreased frequency of diarrhea, abdominal pain, and the urgent need to defecate. The study was conducted using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Interestingly, the participants also reported improvements in their quality of life and lower levels of depression, a common trait among people with IBS.

Diseases Of The Brain And Nervous System

Diseases Of The Brain And Nervous System

Berberine has multiple effects on different pathways and processes, all of which contribute to the protection of neurons and the general health of the central nervous system.

Both Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease are examples.

Berberine can have various effects, depending on how it interacts with the pathogenic processes in neurodegenerative diseases like Huntington's disease and Parkinson's. In a mouse model of Parkinson's disease, improving short-term memory and preventing damage to dopaminergic neurons were achieved through the daily oral administration of Berberine at doses of 20, 50, or 80 milligrams per kilogram of body weight (mg/kg/BW). [24] Similarly, oral administration of Berberine at a dose of forty milligrams per kilogram of body weight per day increased autophagy in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease. In turn, it promoted the cellular degradation of mutant huntingtin, the protein linked to the disease's pathogenesis. A study conducted on mice to investigate the effects of Berberine on neuropathic pain brought on by diabetes found that Berberine inhibited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and suppressed the activation of microglia and astrocytes. Both of these factors are known to be responsible for neuropathic pain. 

Diseases Of The Brain And Nervous System

Dopaminergic Neurons Suffering From Degeneration

Berberine caused an increase in the death of dopaminergic neurons in cell cultures and a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Additionally, it caused a decrease in the amount of dopamine in the substantia nigra, which is the part of the brain most affected by the disease.

The authors of an extensive review of the effects of Berberine on the neurological system discovered that Berberine generally had a beneficial impact. Still, they expressed concern that dose- and species-dependent differences in the metabolism of Berberine could alter some findings. [29]

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease impacting the central nervous system. Preclinical evidence suggests that Berberine shows promise in treating the clinical symptoms associated with MS. In a mouse model of the disease, oral administration of Berberine at a dosage of 30 mg/kg/BW per day reduced several of the pathological hallmarks associated with MS. These pathological hallmarks included blood-brain barrier permeability as factors that drive the degradation of myelin. 

Listen in on Dr. Rhonda Patrick's conversation with Dr. Terry Walhs to gain further insight into multiple sclerosis (MS).


Berberine has been shown to have an antidepressant effect when administered to mice. Studies have shown that the administration of Berberine increases the uptake of neurotransmitters like serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine in the brain, thereby modulating the levels of these neurotransmitters, which are known to affect mood. A study on mice found that administering Berberine orally (at a dosage of either 50 or 100 mg/kg/BW per day) reversed the depression-inducing effects of corticosterone injection. We accomplished This by increasing the hippocampal synthesis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a protein that acts on neurons in the central nervous and peripheral nervous systems. This factor may play an essential role in the antidepressant. 

Clinical trials will be required to elucidate Berberine's neurological benefits in humans fully.

The Effects Of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome On The Distribution Of Bodyweight And Metabolism

The Effects Of Polycystic Ovarian

Polycystic ovarian syndrome, also known as PCOS, is a hormonal condition that causes menstrual irregularities, metabolic dysfunction, excessive hair growth, acne, and obesity. PCOS can also affect fertility. There is some evidence that as many as 10% of women of childbearing hips are afflicted with this condition. Infertility is a common complication for women with PCOS because it causes them to produce abnormally high levels of androgens (male sex hormones).

The findings of an analysis of five studies in which over 1,000 women participated indicated that Berberine may help manage PCOS. According to the results of the studies, adipose tissue redistribution occurred in female subjects who took Berberine. In turn, the women's visceral fat mass decreased, even though they did not experience a reduction in overall body weight. The women saw improvements in both their insulin sensitivity and their lipid profiles. Significantly, Berberine improved insulin sensitivity in the women's theca cells, specialized endocrine cells in the ovaries that play roles in fertility. These cells are responsible for ovulation and other reproductive processes. As a direct result of this, the women experienced an increase in their ovulation rate, leading to a rise in their live birth rates.

It is important to note that the formulations used in the five studies differed entirely. In two studies, participants were given 500 milligrams of berberine hydrochloride three times a day; in one study, participants were given 588 milligrams of Berberis aristata extract twice a day; in one study, participants were given 500 milligrams of Berberine plus 3 milligrams of monacolins (a type of statin) once a day; and in one study, participants were given 1.5 grams of Berberine once 

Anti-Aging Effects

Anti-Aging Effects

In studies using cell cultures, insects, and rodents, Berberine was found to have anti-aging effects. Studies conducted using cell cultures show that Berberine slows down the process of cellular senescence, a form of degeneration that occurs as we age. [37] Senescent cells have lost their ability to replicate (divide) and do not participate in metabolic activity. They frequently secrete inflammatory cytokines, which can cause harm to healthy cells that are located nearby.

Berberine inhibits the activity of matrix metalloproteinases-1 and matrix metalloproteinases-9, which are enzymes involved in UV light-induced skin damage and skin cancer. These enzymes are responsible for the aging effects seen in skin cell culture research.

On the other hand, the substance boosts the activity of procollagen, which is a precursor to collagen and an essential component in maintaining the integrity of the skin. 

In several research studies, Berberine has increased insects' longevity and health. Berberine-treated fruit flies had a lifespan that was 27 percent longer and was 39 percent more active than a control group's fruit fly counterparts. Berberine was found to effectively reduce heat's adverse and age-accelerating effects on fruit flies in a separate investigation. 


In human lung fibroblasts, an investigation into the impact of Berberine on the aging process using numerous models discovered that the substance sped up the advancement of the cells through the cell growth cycle, which in turn sped up the aging process in several different ways. The ability of the cells to multiply for a more extended period was seen, and their general form was more comparable to that of younger cells. The lifetime of mice naturally aged and given Berberine was approximately 17 percent longer, and the lifespan of mice treated with chemotherapy and given Berberine was about 50 percent longer. In addition, the mice exhibited considerable changes in their behavior and fur density. 

These findings in cell culture, fruit flies, and rats point to the possibility that Berberine might slow down the aging process in a beneficial way. On the other hand, it is unknown whether or not Berberine slows down the aging process in humans.

The Workings Behind The Scenes

Several hypotheses have been put out on the mechanisms of action responsible for Berberine's positive benefits. These mechanisms generally take advantage of Berberine's ability to lower oxidative stress by activating or inhibiting many pathways involved in cellular signaling. This article will outline a few of these possible routes.

The primary mechanism associated with Berberine's effects is the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, or AMPK, in multiple cell types. Cell types include endothelium, smooth muscle, cardiomyocytes, cancer cells, pancreatic beta cells, hepatocytes, macrophages, and adipocytes.

By detecting energy deficiencies inside cells, AMPK fulfills its role as the primary regulator of cellular energy homeostasis. Its activation affects gene expression and suppresses cellular processes that contribute to oxidative stress.

Additionally, Berberine is known to stimulate the enzyme p38, which is involved in the body's stress response.

The simultaneous activation of AMPK and p38 is what "switches on" the activity of Nrf2, which is a cellular protein that controls the production of other proteins involved in the stress response and antioxidant processes. Keap1-Nrf2-ARE is a biological route that promotes the transcription of cytoprotective proteins that guard against oxidative stress caused by injury and inflammation. Nrf2 is a component of this pathway and is responsible for activating the transcription of these proteins.

 Berberine is known to stimulate the enzyme p38,

I-Kappa B kinase and Rho GTPase are enzymes that have a role in promoting inflammation. Berberine can suppress the activity of these enzymes.

By inhibiting these two enzymes, NF-kappa B can be deactivated, reducing the intensity of a chain reaction of inflammatory processes.

The berberine biosynthesis pathway is depicted here in diagram form.

The production of Berberine by biosynthesis, and Wikipedia is the cited source. Berberine versus metformin

"Berberine and metformin are quite different from one another in terms of their chemical structures and degree to which they are bioavailable, but they are very similar in how they combat type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and inflammation."

Some of the effects of Berberine are similar to those linked with metformin and an antihyperglycemic medication frequently used to treat type 2 diabetes. Metformin may control the aging processes to improve healthspan and lengthen longevity in numerous species, including flies, worms, and rats; however, there is minimal evidence that this effect occurs in humans. In addition, there is evidence that metformin may prevent cognitive decline, improve mental health, and lower cancer risk. On the other hand, metformin has been shown to inhibit the health benefits induced by exercise, particularly with mitochondrial muscle adaptations and muscle hypertrophy.


Evidence suggests that metformin activates AMPK and inhibits mTOR, which are pathways involved in cellular energy and antioxidant responses. The exact mechanisms by which metformin exerts its effects are not entirely understood; however, the evidence does suggest that metformin activates AMPK and inhibits mTOR

Metformin and Berberine are pretty different in terms of their chemical structures and the degree to which they are bioavailable; nonetheless, they are very similar in terms of the diseases they treat, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and inflammation.

In contrast to the evidence suggesting that metformin reduces the positive effects of exercise, the evidence concerning the relationship between Berberine and physical activity is somewhat contradictory. Both of these substances have a low toxicity level but should not be used in certain situations (the specifics of which vary).

This comprehensive article discusses the effects of metformin in greater detail.

In contrast to metformin, the effects on exercise adaptation are as follows:

Metformin, much like Berberine,

Metformin, much like Berberine, activates the AMPK pathway and other cellular pathways involved in lowering oxidative stress and cellular damage. Metformin appears to block mitochondrial adaptations, increase cardiorespiratory fitness, and reduce the insulin sensitivity of the whole body following aerobic exercise, according to the evidence. Some studies have hypothesized that Berberine's effects on AMPK activity and the resultant reduction in reactive species may similarly diminish the benefits of exercise. Because Berberine causes a decrease in reactive species. A group of inactive and overweight men participated in an intervention trial that explored the effects of berberine and circuit training. The researchers discovered that Berberine boosted the benefits of exercise. Berberine amplified the impact of aerobic exercise in diabetic rats, as shown by increased levels of antioxidant enzymes in the pancreatic tissues of the animals. Berberine lessens the harmful effects of exhaustion-induced heart damage in mice because of its inhibitory effects on releasing reactive oxygen species and the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. Exercising to the point of exhaustion can cause damage to the heart muscle, but Berberine lessens the harmful effects of exhaustion-induced heart damage.

It will not be possible to determine the effects of Berberine on the health benefits induced by exercise without conducting additional clinical studies involving large groups of participants.

The Pharmacokinetics Of Berberine

The Pharmacokinetics Of Berberine

Because of the active efflux of the chemical via p-glycoproteins, transporters involved in the clearance of xenobiotic compounds such as medicines, toxins, and polyphenols, the gut is the site of substantial berberine metabolism.

Studies conducted on rodents have shown that oral administration of berberine results in a bioavailability that is lower than one percent or even lower. However, it can significantly improve the compound's bioavailability by using alternative delivery systems for Berberine. These include mucoadhesive microparticle formulation, anhydrous reverse micelle microemulsion, and oral microemulsion.

After being absorbed through the intestinal mucosa, Berberine is subjected to biotransformation in the liver through phases 1 and 2 of the metabolic process, which results in the production of its primary metabolites, which are berberrubine, thalifendine, and jatrorrhizine.

The cytochrome P450, or CYP, enzymes, and more specifically CYP2D6, are the ones that play the most significant roles in phase 1 of the berberine metabolic pathway. [8] Polymorphisms in a person's genetic code that affect the expression of CYP2D6 have a knock-on effect on berberine metabolism and should be considered when determining the appropriate dosage.

cytochrome P450,

Interestingly, despite Berberine's poor oral bioavailability and the resultant low plasma concentration, it is widely distributed in the body's tissues following ingestion, especially in the liver, kidneys, muscles, lungs, and brain. It is the case even though plasma concentration is relatively low. This anomaly was explained by a study conducted on rodents, which demonstrated that microbes in the gut convert Berberine into a more absorbable form of the compound (fivefold greater).

 In a study conducted on people, the metabolism of Berberine is variable since the food influences the composition of the microbiome in the gut. According to the findings of one study, plasma berberine concentrations were more than twice as high among young African boys as young Asian guys. This finding suggests that more individualized methods for the administration of Berberine could be required. Within forty-eight hours of its administration, the bulk of Berberine is eliminated from the body through feces, bile, and urine.

Toxicity Profile And Drug-Interactions

Toxicity Profile And Drug-Interactions

Berberine is well-tolerated and has a low toxicity level when administered to rodents. However, the dose of Berberine that is considered fatal is significantly impacted by the route of administration. While administration through the stomach does not result in death, administration through the veins or the abdomen can result in fatal levels. Constipation and diarrhea are the two adverse effects of Berberine in humans that have been observed at doses of 500 milligrams per day or higher, particularly when the drug is combined with other medications that treat hyperglycemia. These side effects have been reported in the vast majority of cases. The risk of experiencing gastrointestinal distress was significantly decreased when patients took a dose of 300 milligrams three times per day.

Ketoconazole (a drug used to treat fungal infections), cyclosporine (an immunosuppressant), digoxin (a medicine used to treat arrhythmias), and metformin all have significantly increased bioavailability as a result of Berberine's ability to inhibit the activity of enzymes that are responsible for their metabolism. Because both of these compounds can lower glucose levels in the blood, it is especially concerning that the increased bioavailability of metformin occurs when combined with Berberine. Taking both at the same time should be done with extreme caution.

On the other hand, research on rodents and humans suggests that Berberine can reduce the adverse side effects caused by several medications. These treatments include cisplatin, isoniazid, bleomycin, doxorubicin, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.



Berberine is a bioactive molecule derived from plants and may be found in various plant species. And it is also widely accessible as a dietary supplement. According to evidence gathered from studies conducted on animals and humans, berberine may be beneficial for improving lipid profiles, enhancing blood glucose regulation, and combating aging-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disorders, neurological disorders, and type 2 diabetes.

Berberine is significantly metabolized in the gastrointestinal tract, contributing to its low bioavailability. Despite these factors, Berberine has shown a generally good safety profile. While

Berberine and metformin are very different regarding their chemical structures and the bioavailability of their active ingredients. They are also very similar in terms of their effects on chronic diseases. In addition, the two compounds exert their effects through many of the same molecular pathways, such as the activation of AMPK and the various routes involved in the production of cellular energy and antioxidants. On the other hand, the processes that drive the lipid-lowering benefits of Berberine, such as the control of several proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism, are different from the ones that statins use to accomplish their lipid-lowering effects. Although

Berberine has shown promise as a possible treatment for various health disorders, and more human clinical research is required to validate the compound's hypothesized impacts on people.

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